Category Archives: permaculture

Late Autumn Permaculture Update

The rains have come and much of the ground is now saturated. Many of our pathways have taken on a distinctive brown colour.

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After being nearly dry this summer, the pond is filling.

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And I’ve taken the pump out of storage to pump out the swales as there is more rain in the forecast.

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We’ve planted some beds to winter vegetables…

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…and built new beds for garlic planting.

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Here are 2 & 1/2 cubic metres of compost ready for the garlic plantings starting later this month.

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This weekend marked eight weeks for our kunekune piglets and so six of them were sold to new homes. Here is one of the remaining three. No more fighting over the scraps!

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We have approximately 100 muscovies hatched this summer almost ready to be sold.

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And these nine are just two weeks old.

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Tractoring birds for the last three years has done wonders for improving soil quality and regrowth of favourable grasses.

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And finally, we say goodbye to our three fabulous interns, Karen, Vera and Ali. The next two interns arrive tomorrow.

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Peace Estwing

Designing for Climate Change

Above all else, we design our farm for climate change. Primarily this means drought-proofing and flood-proofing simultaneously. While we employ many strategies along these lines, here is one that is very straight-forward.

In June, 2015 Whanganui experienced an extreme rain event that caused slips and erosion on our farm. In one area approximately 30 cubic metres of stream bank disappeared overnight.

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When we went to inspect it the next day we were awed by the destructive power of the water.

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The flood was so powerful is sheered fencing wire through pure tension.

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From that day – just 10 months into our ownership of the farm – our thinking about how to manage the 13 acre property took a drastic change. We fenced over 400 metres of stream, planted over 2,000 trees, and put in another 500 metres of fencing to exclude stock from sensitive areas.

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Along the stream we planted a host of native species including grasses and cabbage trees known for their fibrous root systems that hold soil in place. We also planted over 100 Australian casuarina, also known as sheoak and river oak.

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As an emergency measure we drove willow poles into the stream bank in the worst effected areas. We intended to use the willow and sheoak as stock fodder – easily pollarding it and dropping branches over the fence for eager goats.

Over the last two years the willows have grown up to the point where this week we were able to cut branches for the goats for the first time. Although we’re not in a drought at the moment this is the type of emergency stock feeding we’ve designed for in case of long periods with no rain.

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Willow is healthy stock fodder. Here is great link to a resource explaining all about it:

At the end of the day, by fencing the stream and planting its riparian corridor with the proper species we are able to flood-proof and drought-proof this section of our farm simultaneously. In a future of increased extreme weather events it seems like the only viable option.


Peace, Estwing

Making Permaculture Pay

Permaculture is often described as a “lifestyle ethic” but not often as a way to make a living. There may be some permaculture designers out there and some permaculture educators, but how many people can earn an income from ‘doing’ permaculture?

Now, of course, this is a loaded question because everyone has their own interpretation of permaculture and who qualifies as a permaculturist. I’ll start by saying that permaculturists are self-identified. In other words, there can be amazing organic farmers or super-duper green builders or spectacular orchardists, but the only persons who can label them as permies is themselves.

Next we have a look at what ‘doing’ permaculture means. At it’s core it requires an ethical approach to food production and to housing; it is holistic; it involves design thinking always; and, it engages humans in more resilient and sustainable thoughts and actions.

From these perspectives, making a living from permaculture might include a diverse income stream involving some or all of the above. As a short case study I’ll list some of the ways we are beginning to earn a permaculture living.

Over the last fortnight we have: sold 7kg of organic garlic to a restaurant; sold seed garlic on TradeMe; sold garlic at the local Farmer’s Market; sold gum branches to a florist; completed a design for a suburban property; advised a hotel on heating and cooling issues; carried out an inspection of a mouldy rental property; taken bookings for upcoming workshops; received payment for our PDC Internship programme (along with teaching our current group of PDC interns); taken bookings for a school holiday Nature Play programme; received pre-orders for 30 muscovy ducks.

Additionally, in the near future we anticipate selling a few hundred tagasaste seedlings, ten kune kune piglets, strawberry plants, grape vines, and chicken tractors.

But making a living at permaculture does not only involve earning money. To a large extent it means what I call “cost avoidance” by growing one’s own food, slashing one’s power bill, finding free or low-cost building materials and compost ingredients. In other words, punching above one’s weight by living large on a small amount of money.

Anyway, that’s what I think. What do you think?

Peace, Estwing

Autumn Permaculture Update

Autumn has arrived on the farm, although most signs of the season have arrived early. For example, the Jerusalem artichoke is flowering two weeks early.

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And the Monty’s Surprise apples came early, although most of them seem to have been dropped by the trees – possibly due to drought stress and strong winds.

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We’ve had beautiful figs, and the muscovies have enjoyed the drops.

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The feijoas will probably come early as well.

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And the guavas.

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The garden looks like an autumn garden.

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And we’re planting a winter garden.

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The nursery is chocka with over 300 trees to plant this winter.

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And we’re potting up more tagasaste.

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And finally, we’ve had our first two litters of kune kune piglets born.

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Peace, Estwing

Fruits of Our Labour

Holmgren’s third permaculture principle is “obtain a yield.” Autumn is when a lot of yield happens. It’s a great time of year.

Another way to appreciate yield is to plant a fruit tree and then wait for years until it bears fruit. We’ve planted over 200 fruit trees over the last three years and it’s gratifying to see many of them producing, which includes: peaches, plums, nectarines, apricots, lemons, oranges, grapefruit, figs, feijoas, apples, and guavas.

But we’re still waiting for the big payoff: avocados!

Peace, Estwing

Late Summer Permaculture Update II

Summer is always a busy time of year – made busier by a drought. Thankfully we have had nine amazing interns on the farm over the last four months.

After a hot and dry summer we’ve gotten a good soaking rain – about 60 mm over three days. Enough to dampen the soil and plant a winter crop of leeks.

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And also to prep a new annual bed and soak the compost piles through.

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Strawberries and yakon are responding to the rain.

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Some pumpkins have been harvested and are curing on the edge of the stone driveway.

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There are more ‘winter squash’ among the second planting of tomatoes.

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The third planting of tomatoes is starting to take off.

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We’ve been drying chilis on the solar dehydrator. These will be the next batch to be harvested.

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The beans are going gangbusters even through this trellis has been knocked over twice by severe winds.

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And finally, to bookend our summer the first lot of ducklings are nearly full-grown…

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…while the last lot of ducklings has just hatched.

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Looking forward to a slower autumn.


Peace, Estwing

Guest Host: Caring for Young Trees

Editor’s note: This is a post by our intern Andrew.


Trees play a lead role on our farm. More than just a source of fruit and a pleasing landscaping feature, trees are valued within permaculture design for their complex array of functions within any ecosystem. Trees and forests work wonders in preventing soil erosion, regulating the extremes of humidity and temperature, managing the soil moisture, and acting as a windbreak.

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It is unsurprising that permaculturists are enamored with trees. The ethos of permaculture is to “design and maintain agriculturally productive systems which have the diversity, stability, and resilience of natural ecosystems.” And the prehistoric state of most ecosystems on earth’s surface was characterized by forest. Here in New Zealand, before the arrival of humans, 85% of the land mass was tree cover whereas that figure is barely above 30% today. A similar story has played out globally as the march of human presence and capabilities has been synchronous with the felling of forests.

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We often imagine history with humans as the protagonists, domesticating other species in our quest for global domination. But an equally valid perspective is to instead think of grasses, in the form of maize, wheat and other staples, domesticating humans to do the work of clearing trees. We open up space for our masters, grass, to grow and flourish.

As any permaculturist knows, the clearing of trees is accompanied by a host of adverse consequences to the surrounding ecosystem. In the Lebo’s case, they inherited a damaged property suffering after years of clearcutting and overgrazing, a hillside in danger of slips, and a flooding creek tearing away at its banks. It is true that left to its own devices, cleared land will slowly grow back into forest over the course of many years. Grasses will be succeeded by shrubs, then small trees, and finally bigger trees.

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But to stop the bleeding, the Lebo’s top priority on this land has been to intervene to speed along the recovery process by planting over a thousand trees. Many of these adorn the bare hillsides and blanket the creek beds to slow erosion and prevent the creek from widening and swallowing more of the land. Others are fruit-bearing, grown as part of a future food forest, both feeding us and the community, providing forage for birds and pigs, and acting as a wind and soundbreak from the main road. With so many young trees, caring for them can be a full-time job.

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Like any living creature, trees need water. Whereas full-grown trees possess wide and deep root systems rendering them more resilient during drought times, young trees still need to be coddled. Much of this dry summer has seen us directly watering the young poplar, olive, and manuka trees dotting the hillside. To increase the effectiveness of the watering, the trees were planted inside small depressions in the shape of small bowls. Since they are on a hillside, this is an important step to ensure that water soaks into the earth directly on the plant and thereby encourages deep root growth.

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In addition, we like to give our baby trees a leg up in the competition for water and nutrients by occasionally patrolling the trees to pull the grasses and weeds in the immediate vicinity of their tiny trunks to maintain a small circumference of cleared space. Many of the trees are so small that they would otherwise be completely overrun and suffocated by the tall grasses and vines that can spring up during wet spells. We lay the pulled grasses back down around the base to act as a mulch. This aids in slowing water evaporation from the soil around the tree and inhibiting the resurgence of grasses and weeds by shading them out.

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As the trees age, sometimes plants are purposefully planted around the base of the tree. Down the road in Whanganui, the Heritage Food Crops Research Trust has bushes of comfrey growing around the base of some of the fruit trees. Comfrey acts as a living mulch to prevent the overgrowth of grass, but it also is particularly useful in its role as a dynamic accumulator, mining nutrients from far within the soil with its deep roots. These nutrients can be added back to the soil by frequently trimming comfrey leaves and laying them down as mulch or by making a comfrey tea out of them.

Much of caring for trees is knowing the appropriate microclimate in which to plant them. For example, we have a few potted citrus trees we are hoping to transplant into the ground soon. However, citrus trees abhor having wet feet, which, given the realities of the clay soils and wet winters, is hard to avoid. With this in mind, we have taken a plot from the garden and built a hugelkultur in order to create a small rise in the land to create a drier corner.

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Avocado trees, while enjoying plentiful water, are also susceptible to root rot if kept too moist. They will therefore be planted at the bottom of our hill but on a small plateau. This area has the additional benefit of being one of the only places on the property with free-draining sandy soil.

Sometimes, a succession of trees should be planted to mimic ideal growing conditions. Take the avocado trees again as an example. When avocado trees are young, they must grow under shade. In our case, we will plant tagasaste as a nurse tree a full season before planting the avocado. Tagasaste is an ideal nurse tree, being easy to propagate from seed and providing nitrogen fixing and shade. In addition, tagasaste is a short-lived tree, so by the time the avocado tree has matured enough to hold its own, the tagasaste can be harvested for firewood.

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On an organic farm, keeping pests and diseases down naturally is important. We have invested in a wide diversity of tree species and varieties to safeguard against any one pest or disease from thriving and wreaking havoc throughout the whole property. In addition, we purchase only the most disease-resistant varieties. Pruning has a role in disease prevention as well. Pruning off dead, diseased, or damaged branches maintains a healthy tree and opens it up to better air circulation.

One last factor that should always be considered is protecting trees from potential damage wrought by prevailing winds as well as other animals on the farm. As Nelson always says, “You have to plan 110% for animals.” We take extreme precautions with bulletproof fencing for the goats on the farm. If they get into the adjacent orchard, they could eat the young trees to death in the course of a short afternoon, decimating years worth of investment.

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All in all, trees are an irreplaceable keystone to any permaculture design. Caring for them can be a handful, but is always well worth the work.



Land as Teacher: The Permaculture Campus

When students enrol in our PDC internship programme they soon learn that human instructors take a backseat to the real teacher: the farm itself.

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Farm life often revolves around problem-solving: restoring degraded soils; stabilising vulnerable slopes; re-establishing a former wetland; planting riparian corridors; mending fences; caring for animals; dealing with drought; dealing with floods; clearing drains; digging drains; addressing pest outbreaks; treating diseased plants; protecting chicks and ducklings from predators… The list, at times, seems endless.

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But it makes for an endless stream of teachable moments over the course of our 8-week residential PDC programme, alongside other projects such as erecting new fences, putting up wood for the winter, propagating grape vines, harvesting garlic, pruning fruit trees, ringing pigs, clipping goats’ hooves, processing cockerels, building chicken tractors, scything tall grasses, dehydrating fruit for storage, or breaking in new annual beds.

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These experiences are overlaid on top of daily and weekly chores: turning the compost; feeding animals; collecting eggs; milking goats; harvesting fruits and vegetables; weed management; solar cooking; making cheese; baking bread; and, starting seeds.Screen Shot 2018-02-04 at 6.04.56 am

Interns come to Kaitiaki Farm from around the world – most with little or no farming and building experience. For many, English is a second or third language. Some have already completed a PDC elsewhere. Some left well-paying jobs while others are military veterans. They may be vegan, vegetarian, or paleo.

But what they all share is the desire to learn in an authentic context. This creates an amazing community of highly motivated learners. It’s serious business.

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While we follow the PDC Curriculum, the way in which we do so is responsive rather than prescriptive. In other words, we let the land cover most of the topics and we step in only to round it out. Interns not only learn by doing, they learn the how, why, where and when of managing a permaculture farm.

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Above all else they learn four-dimensional design thinking that can be applied to all aspects of their lives after leaving the farm. In other words, what we really offer is a two-month immersion programme in systems thinking.

Connecting the dots, I believe, is the most essential skill to address the many challenges facing humanity. Not all of our graduates will go on to become organic farmers or green builders, but they all have a role to play in creating a better world through holistic understanding and creative problem-solving.


Peace, Estwing

Late Summer Permaculture Update

It has been a long and hot summer – great for growing tomatoes and basil, but hard keeping many young trees alive. We’ve spent a lot of time hand watering but have managed to keep up with it. This is a shot of part of our young orchard.

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Here is the flax windbreak for the orchard that is now two and a half years old.

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This blackbody peach tree had two spring flushes this year. Weird. I have never seen anything like it.

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Not a lot of peaches but they are large.

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A huge number of Monty’s Surprise apples came down in the wind last week. We are storing them to feed out to the birds and pigs over time.

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We’ve had well over 100 muscovy ducklings hatched this year with more on the way.

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Unfortunately not many hens so far.

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These cockerels will be ready for processing in another 2 to 3 weeks.

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Our bee guys came to harvest the honey this week. Sadly, it’s the second bad honey season in a row.

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And of course it was a terrible growing season for garlic, but we have survived as one of the few organic growers in the country with a half-decent crop.

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Some good news is that Rosie has had twins that are doing well.

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And we’ve been potting up tagasaste in the nursery.

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That’s all for now, Estwing.